Discussion on the development of Western printing

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Discussion on the development of Western printing industry from the perspective of economic globalization

implementing the western development and accelerating the development of the central and western regions is a major strategic decision put forward by the Central Committee at the turn of the century according to Comrade Deng Xiaoping's thought of "two overall situations", and is one of the major measures for China to achieve the third strategic goal. In its original meaning, the western development is to promote the vast territory, which accounts for 71.4% of the country's land area and 28.5% of the population, to step out of underdevelopment and realize socialist modernization. There are still tens of millions of poor people in the West. The living standard of the people is very low, and the development of science and technology lags behind. The development of the west is a grand chapter in building a prosperous and civilized socialist country and realizing the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. It conforms to the will of the people and public opinion

this western development is the continuation, extension and expansion of the previous two western development. It is different from the guiding ideology, development mode and operation mechanism of the previous two development

1) the first two developments rely on national financial input and project embeddedness under the planned economic system. This time, within the framework of the socialist market economic system, through the market mechanism, relying on the basic role of the market in the allocation of resources

2) the first two developments were carried out in a semi closed environment, mainly relying on China's own strength. This large-scale development is carried out at a new stage when economic globalization is developing day by day, China is about to join the WTO, participate in international economic cooperation and competition on a larger scale and to a deeper extent, and further expand opening-up. On the basis of fully mobilizing state-owned capital and private capital, open the door to attract foreign capital, technology and talents to participate in the large-scale development. Therefore, the current western development is a large-scale development in the interaction of large-scale development and opening-up, a large-scale development of domestic development and opening-up, and a large-scale development of bringing in and going out

"printing" is an important part of the information industry. Informatization drives industrialization is a strategic policy put forward by the central government. The degree of development of the printing industry shows the degree of economic development, cultural and technological development. With the in-depth development of science and technology, electronic media has shown its strong vitality. Electronic media and paper media are like two wheeled vehicles, dragging the "economy" forward in interaction. Many functions of paper media cannot be replaced by electronic media, such as newspapers, books, packaging, trademarks, advertisements, etc. Packaging materials not only protect commodities, but also convey information and show deep cultural connotation. It can be predicted that with the in-depth development of the market economy, the market demand for paper media will continue to rise. According to statistics: the annual output value of printed matter per capita in Germany is 450 marks, the United States is 600 marks, and Japan is 860 marks, which should be tightened in time; The country has only 20 marks. Paper consumption is the main measure of the growth of the printing industry. The global annual consumption of paper is about 300 million tons, the per capita consumption of paper in the United States is 300 kg, Europe accounts for about half, and the third world countries only have 1 kg. It is not difficult to see from the above data that "printing" is a barometer of national economic development. Due to history and many other reasons, there is certainly a gap in the printing industry after the bidong tribe in Western China. Therefore, developing the printing industry in the west is the booster of developing the West

on the whole, Western China is still in the junior high school stage of the industrialization process, and the development is extremely uneven, which is mainly reflected in:

(1) the economic aggregate, especially the per capita level, industrialization level and urbanization level, are in the initial stage

(2) dual economy is the obvious feature of the western economy. In the case of Chongqing, the only municipality directly under the central government in the west, 2/3 of it is agricultural economy, and other provinces (autonomous regions) are also dominated by agricultural and animal husbandry economy, which has not yet entered the pattern of industrialized economy

(3) some important economically developed cities in the west, such as Chongqing, Chengdu, Kunming and Xi'an, have entered the industrialized economy, but in terms of industrial economy, they are basically in the stage of traditional industrial technology and process. This imbalance objectively puts forward phased requirements at different levels for the economic development and informatization in the West

first, developing the capital market is the primary condition for the western development

compared with the west, the East has technological advantages, talent advantages, capital advantages and information advantages. What really restricts the development of the west is "capital". Development economics believes that the scale, speed and structure of capital formation are the basic constraints of economic development in underdeveloped areas. Among production factors such as labor, capital and natural resources, capital has always been the most scarce resource. Only after successfully solving the problem of capital formation can underdeveloped regions get rid of poverty and backwardness as soon as possible with the cooperation of other factors

in December 2000, the State Council issued the notice on several policies and measures for the implementation of the western development, proposing a series of specific measures to tilt towards the West from capital investment to policy investment, including increasing the proportion of central financial construction funds and various special construction funds used in the West; We should increase the scale of financial transfer payments from the central government to the western region, increase the distribution proportion of various special subsidies in the western region, and increase financial and credit support for the western region, which includes not only increasing the proportion of national policy bank loans invested in the western region, but also increasing the proportion of preferential loans from international financial organizations and foreign governments used in the western region

the function of government capital (including central finance and local finance) is limited. It can only be used for public goods of infrastructure and ecological environment. The purpose is to change the serious shortage of public goods in the western region and create good conditions for private capital to invest and develop the West. The direction of government capital investment determines that the role of government capital investment is "developmental, guiding and phased". When public goods develop to a certain period and the demand eases, the role of government capital will weaken. Therefore, while increasing government capital investment, we should speed up the cultivation of capital markets. Experience at home and abroad has proved that the capital market in underdeveloped areas can also realize multilingual printing, which has irreplaceable special functions, mainly in:

(1) the capital market can provide sufficient and long-term capital for the western development. In the process of the western development, the capital market can rely on its powerful financing function to plan sufficient, cheap and long-term capital for the western region in a short time, It can break through the boundaries of regions, departments, ownership and subjects, and provide sufficient funds for the western development. Secondly, the capital market can provide much-needed long-term capital for the western development through the issuance of shares by listed companies, the establishment of investment funds, mortgages and other forms

(2) capital market can strengthen the role of market in capital allocation, improve the efficiency of capital use, and improve the quality of capital use while ensuring adequate capital supply in the process of western development

(3) the capital market can promote the reform of enterprise system, and enterprises can use the stock market and stock issuance to improve their capital structure, creating good preconditions for the smooth construction of modern enterprise system. In the property rights market, listed companies can carry out a series of integration of merger and acquisition enterprises in the process of merger and acquisition, and promote the establishment of modern enterprise system by injecting market concepts, capital, mechanism and management

(4) the capital market can provide a powerful means for asset restructuring. The state-owned economy in the western region accounts for a large proportion, and the backward economic structure is very prominent. In the western development, the solution of these problems must rely on the capital market

in establishing the capital market, the government clearly expressed its sincerity to welcome foreign capital, technology and talents to participate in the western development, and stipulated a series of preferential conditions such as expanding market access fields, investment methods, taxes and so on

Second, the goal orientation of the western development

how to determine the goal of the western development is the basic topic that we must first make a choice. From the perspective of the already prominent contradictions, the goal should be to speed up the development of the western region, improve the living standards of urban and rural residents in the western region, and narrow the gap between the East and the West. Specifically, we must make the western region have an unconventional development in the next 20 to 30 years, so that the living standards of urban and rural residents in the western region can reach the national average level. How to achieve this goal, Premier Zhu Rongji proposed four aspects during his inspection of the northwest region: (-) strengthening infrastructure construction after Kemal's death in 1938; (2) Adjust the industrial structure; (3) Governing the ecological environment; (4) Implement the strategy of rejuvenating the country through science and education

it is of great significance for the whole country to cut into the West from the above four aspects. It must be noted that the development of the western region is uneven. Although the west is backward, there are also relatively advanced places. Some central cities in the West are relatively developed in economy and culture. Chongqing, Chengdu, Xi'an, Kunming and Urumqi occupy an important position in the country. It is necessary to strengthen the radiation function of central cities in terms of economic structure, ownership structure, technical structure, urban infrastructure, environmental protection and social security, Carry out restructuring, reorganization, transformation, innovation and strengthen management. In short, no matter what measures are taken, they must focus on improving the living standards of urban and rural residents in the west, improving scientific and cultural literacy, improving the economic strength of the vast western region, and accelerating the development and construction of the West

III. western development and economic globalization

economic globalization is the general trend of today's world economic development, which mainly refers to the state of the movement of production factors on a global scale, as well as the historical process of independent national economic interdependence and economic union of countries in the world. Economic globalization includes the globalization of trade, production, finance and science and technology. Economic globalization is an objective law that does not depend on people's will. The 21st century will be a century in which globalization will continue to strengthen. It will also be a century in which China unswervingly follows the socialist road, comprehensively promotes the socialist cause, and realizes socialist modernization

the western development is developed in the interactive process of "going out and bringing in". Therefore, we should not look at the world from the perspective of the west, but from the perspective of economic globalization. When you face the map, you see the West in a corner. But as long as you adjust your perspective and turn the globe, Western China is located in the hinterland of the Eurasian continent, relying on the geographical advantages of "winning China's unique advantages" from all sides, The silk road connecting China and Western countries promoted the great development in the first great opening-up in China's history, and created the prosperous era of the Han and Tang Dynasties. After a long history of silence, in the early 1990s, with the connection of Lanzhou Xinjiang Railway and Shangxi railway at Alataw pass, a new Eurasian land bridge with a length of more than 10000 kilometers, crossing dozens of countries on two continents of Asia and Europe and connecting the two oceans was formed. In the new century of globalization, from Kashgar at the western end of the southern Xinjiang Railway, through Kyrgyzstan to Andijan in Uzbekistan, it can be connected with the existing overseas railways, directly to Istanbul in Turkey and the Mediterranean coast. With the construction of Jinghe station Ili of Lanzhou Xinjiang Railway and Horgos railway, three portals (Alataw pass, Horgos and Kashgar) will be formed at both ends of the Chinese section of the new Eurasian Continental Bridge, leading to Central Asia, Europe, West Asia and North Africa respectively

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